Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a semiconductor with a hexagonal structure. From the standpoint of research, it is an extraordinary material due to the remarkable combination of its electronic, optical, electrical, structural, and morphological properties. To name a few, ZnO has a wide direct bandgap of 3.37 eV and significant exciton energy of 60 meV, along with perfect thermal stability. Given its various chemical and physical properties, the application range of zinc oxide is quite vast and diverse. For instance, it is commonly used in antibacterial and disinfectant agents, as well as in rubber, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. For these reasons, the process of growing ZnO nanoparticles has drawn much attention in numerous areas of applied science.
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In light of the above, ZnO Raman spectroscopy makes it possible to detect the high crystal quality of the wurtzite structure, as well as the defects like oxygen vacancies, zinc excess, or surface impurities. What is more, as ZnO Raman spectra exhibit a peak generally observed for large ZnO crystals, this technique also enables the identification of massive monocrystals.