Raman spectroscopy has been recognized as a reliable, accurate, and time-efficient method of the chemical structure of matter on a molecular scale. However, this technique has a critical limitation — as ordinary molecules and germs have a fairly small scattering cross-section, they produce a rather weak Raman response. The technology of surface-enhanced Raman scattering of light (SERS) has been employed to substantially boost Raman spectroscopy's sensitivity. The effect is achieved when a sample substance is placed on special nanostructured surfaces, which concentrate the electromagnetic field of laser radiation. Remarkably, it results in Raman signal amplification of many orders of magnitude. The Raman spectrum contains a number of narrow resonance lines, each of which corresponds to a specific vibrational/rotational molecular resonance. Thus, any substance or microorganism has its own set of characteristic Raman scattering lines, the so-called spectral «fingerprint.» Therefore, SERS is a powerful and highly effective tool for chemical substance identification and analysis.